Service Design Introduction in ITIL – ITIL Course
Service Design Introduction in ITIL – ITIL Course
Service Design is the service lifecycle phase that is responsible for designing appropriate, comprehensive and innovativeIT services.
Service Design is the phase in the lifecycle following Service Strategy. In this perspective, Service Design has to meet the objectives of Service Strategy and apply the strategies into the design.
The purpose of the service design stage of the lifecycle is to design IT services, together with the governing IT practices, processesand policies to realize the service provider‘s strategy and to facilitate the introduction of these services into supported environments ensuring quality service delivery, customer satisfaction and cost– effective service provision.
Objectives of Service Design include the following:
• Design services to deliver more effective and efficient IT and business solutions to satisfy business objectives
• Reduce, minimize or constrain the long-term costs of service provision
• Design efficient and effective processes fordesign, transition, operation and improvement of high quality IT services
• Design secure and resilient IT infrastructures
• Design measurements methods and metrics
• Produce and maintain IT plans, processes, architectures, frameworks and documentations
• Develop the skills and capabilities within IT
• Contribute to the improvementof the overall quality of IT services offered
The processes includedin the Service Design phase are:
• Service Level Management (design)
• Capacity Management
• Availability Management
• IT Service Continuity Management
• Information SecurityManagement
• Supplier Management
• Service Catalog Management
Many of these activities will reoccur in other lifecycle phases.
Introduction – Roles (Process Owner)
The process owner’s accountabilities include:
• Sponsoring, designing and change managing the process and its metrics
• Defining the processstrategy
• Assisting with process design
• Ensuring that appropriate processdocumentation is available and current
• Defining appropriate policies and standards to be employed throughout the process
• Periodically auditing the process to ensure compliance to policy and standards
• Periodically reviewing the process strategy to ensure that it is still appropriate and change as required
• Communicating process information or changes as appropriate to ensure awareness
• Providing process resources to support activities required throughout the service lifecycle
• Ensuring that process technicians have the required knowledge and the required technical and business understanding to deliver the process, and understand their role in the process
• Reviewing opportunities for process enhancements and for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the process
• Addressing issues with the running of the process
• Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the CSI register
• Working with the CSI managerand process managerto review and prioritize improvements in the CSI register
• Making improvements to the process.
Roles (Process Manager)
The process manager’s accountabilities include:
• Working with the process owner to plan and coordinateall process activities
• Ensuring thatall activities are carried out as required throughout the service lifecycle
• Appointing people to the required roles
• Managing resources assignedto the process
• Working with service owners and other process managers to ensure the smooth running of services
• Monitoring and reporting on processperformance
• Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the CSI register
• Working with the CSI manager and process owner to review and prioritize improvements in the CSI register
• Making improvements to the process implementation.
Roles (Process Practitioner)
The process practitioner‘s responsibilities typically include:
• Carrying out one or more activities of a process
• Understanding how their role contributes to the overall delivery of service and creation of value for the business
• Working with other stakeholders, such as their manager, co-workers, users and customers, to ensure that their contributions are effective
• Ensuring that inputs, outputs and interfaces for their activities are correct
• Creating or updating records to show that activities have been carried out correctly
The service owner has the following responsibilities:
• Ensuring that the ongoing servicedelivery and support meet agreed customer requirements
• Working with business relationship management to understand and translate customer requirements into activities, measures or service componentsthat will ensure that the serviceprovider can meet those requirements
• Ensuring consistent and appropriate communication with customer(s) for service related enquiries and issues
• Assisting in defining service models and in assessing the impact of new services or changes to existing services through the service portfolio management process
• Identifying opportunities for service improvements, discussing these with the customer and raising RFCs as appropriate
• Liaisingwith the appropriate process owners throughout the service lifecycle
• Soliciting required data, statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective servicemonitoring and performance
• Providing input in serviceattributes such as performance, availability etc.
• Representing the service across the organization
• Understanding the service (components etc.)
• Serving as the point of escalation (notification) for major incidents relating to the service
• Representing the service in change advisory board (CAB) meetings
• Participatingin internal service review meetings (within IT)
• Participatingin external service review meetings (with the business)
• Ensuring that the service entry in the service catalog is accurate and is maintained
• Participating in negotiating service level agreements (SLAs) and operational level agreements (OLAs) relating to the service
• Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the continual service improvement (CSI) register
• Working with the CSI manager to review and prioritize improvements in the CSI
• Making improvements to the service.
Value to the Business
With a good design, the IT organization is able to deliver high-quality and cost effective services.
Some of the benefits obtainable from a good Service Design are:
• Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
• Improved alignment, qualityand consistency of service.
• Easier implementation of new or changed services.
• More effective service performance.
• Improved IT governance.
• More effective Service Management and IT process.
• Improved informationand decision-making.
Overview of Service Design
The Service Design stage aims to design service solutions to meet the changing requirements of the business.
All designs must reflect the goals and objectives of the business. This means that the design team will have to know the key strategies in the Service Strategy, the IT solutions and applications to be used, the services to be offered, the resources and capabilities of the IT organization, the market trends, the costing and the operational workflow.
The key output of the Service Design stage is the design of service solutions to meet the changing requirements of the business. When designing these solutions, input from many different areas needs to be considered within the various activities involved in designing the service solution, from identifying and analyzing requirements, through to building a solution and SDP to hand over to Service Transition.
In order to develop effective and efficient service solutions that meet and continue to meet the requirements of the business and the needs of IT, it is essential that all the inputs and needs of all other areas and processes are reconsidered within each of the Service Designactivities. This will ensure that all service solutions are consistent and compatible with existing solutions and will meet the expectations of the customers and users.This will most effectively be achieved by consolidating these facets of the key processes intoall of these Service Design activities, so that all inputs are automatically referenced every time a new or changedservice solution is produced.
Some of the roles of Service Design Managerinclude the following:
• Taking the overall service strategies and ensuring they are reflected in the
Service Design practice
• Designing the functional aspects of the services
• Producing quality, secure and resilient designs for new or improved services, technology architecture,processes or measurement systems
• Producing and maintaining all design documentation
• Producing and maintaining all necessaryService Design Packages
• Measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the Service Design process
Service Portfolioand ServiceCatalog
Service Portfolio is producedas part of Service Strategy. Service Portfolio contains the Service Catalog.
Service Portfolio has a role to maintain and provide a central accurate set of information on all services. The Service Portfolio represents thecommitments and investments made by a service provider to all customers and market spaces. It also includes current contractual commitments, new servicedevelopments and ongoing service improvement programs; as well as third-party services. The Service Portfolio contains information relating to every service and its current status within the organization.
Service Catalog is a subset of Service Portfolio. The Service Catalog should contain details of all operational services or those being prepared for transition to the live environment. These include details of services and activities in the Service Operations and Service Transition lifecycles. The Catalog containsa customer-facing view of IT services that enables them to understand the services offered, the processes involved and quality of service to be expected.
Service Design Package (SDP) defines a set of design constraints against which the service release and new or changed service will be developed and built. This package is then passed fromService Design to Service Transition. It is produced during the design stage for each new cycle, major change to a service, removal of a service,or changes to the Service Design Package itself.
The SDP contains:
• Details and requirements of the Services: the service, it‘s functionality and the conditions under which the servicehas to be delivered
• Service Design: the details of the required capacity, availability, continuity etc. for the specific service
• Assessment: review of the serviceconditions and how they can be achieved
• Service Lifecycle Plan: the expected duration and condition of the service to be operational
There are several aspects of designs that are crucial to the overall integrated output of Service Design.
There are 5 major aspects of Service Design:
• The design of the service solutions: In designing service solutions, a formal and structuredapproach is necessary,this is to ensure that the new services are at the right cost, functionality, quality and within the time frame.
• The design of ServiceManagement Systems and Tools for the management and control of services throughout their lifecycle: The most effective way of managing all aspects of services through their lifecycle is by using appropriate management systems and tools to support and automate efficientprocesses. The Service Portfolio is the most critical management system used to support all processes and describes a provider’s services in terms of business value.
• The design of the technology and management architecture and tools required to provide the services: Provides the overall strategic blueprints for the development and deployment of an IT infrastructure. This includes policies, operations, documentation and improvement plans.
• The designof the processes needed to design, transition, operateand improve the services: Helps to understand the distinctive features of a process. A process includes roles, responsibilities, tools and management controls. Process control enables the processes to be performed in a controlled, consistent, effective and efficient manner.
• The design of the measurement systems, methods and metrics for the services, the architecture and their constituent components and the processes: Monitoring and measuring processes is vital to manage and control design processes. The four types of metrics are Progress, Compliance, Effectiveness and Efficiency.
The “Four Ps”
The implementation of ITIL® service management as a practice is about preparing and planning the effectiveand efficient use of the “Four Ps”.
The 4 Ps are:
• People: Communication, training and clear definitions of roles and responsibilities forall parties involved areessential. This aspect of the “Four Ps” is concerned with the “soft” side of IT.
• Processes: “Processes” is where ITIL® enters the design mechanism.It relates to the end-to-end delivery of servicesbased on process flows. The ITIL® processes are covered as a phased lifecycle.
• Products: There are now a numberof tools available to IT organizations that are considered “ITIL® compatible” and have been developed to complementIT Service Managementprocedures. These tools can assist in the implementation and running of IT services.
• Partners: Suppliers and the management of suppliers, partners, manufacturers and vendors are essential to the provision of quality IT services.
Technology and Architecture
Technology and architecture that are going to be applied across the service lifecycle are determined and designed during Service Design.
Automation of processes is widely applied in IT organizations. Automation supports integration of processes such as for the purpose of measuring performance, knowledge management, improved utility and warrantyas well as reduced risks and costs.
Service Operation needs an integrated IT Service Management Technology
(Toolset) that enables it to be managed efficiently. The core functionalities of the Toolset include:
• Self Help: This capability is supported with some form of web front–end. A
menu-driven range of self-help and service requests is offered.
• Workflow or Process Engine: This capability allows the pre-definition and control of defined processes to be automatically managed.
• Integrated CMS: This capability allows the organization’s IT infrastructure assets, components, services and Configuration items to be held in a centralized locationand linked to Incidents, Problem, Known Error and Change records.
• Discovery/Deployment/Licensing Technology: This capability allows the process to run from any location on the network, deploy new softwareto target locations, and automatic comparison of software licenses details and license numbers
• Remote Control: This capability enables the Service Desk analysts and other support groups to take control of the users’ desk-top for investigation or correct settings
• Diagnostic Utilities: This capability creates and use diagnostic scripts and utilities to assist with earlier diagnosis of incidents
• Reporting: This capability incorporates good reporting and can be used to input data to industry-standard reportingpackages.
• Dashboards: This capability allows ‘at a glance’ visibility of the overall IT service performance and availability levels.
• Integration with Business Service Management: Business applications and tools need to be interfaced with ITSM support tools to give the require d functionality
Service Design Tools helps in simplifying the development of Service Design by providing graphical views of the service and its constituent components.
Service Design tools and techniques can be used for:
• Hardware design
• Software design
• Environmental design
• Process design
• Data design
The tools and techniques are many and varied, including both proprietary and non– proprietary, and are useful in:
• Speeding up the design process
• Ensuring that standardsand conventions are followed
• Offering prototyping, modeling and simulation facilities
• Enabling “What if?” scenarios to be examined
• Enabling checking and correlation of interfaces and dependencies
• Validating designs before they are developedand implemented to ensure that they satisfy and fulfill their intended requirements
Developing Service Designs can be simplified by the use of tools that provide graphical views of the service and its constituent components.
Competence and Skills – Service Management
The specific roles within ITIL service management all require specific skills, attributes and competences from the people involved to enable them to work effectively and efficiently. However, whatever the role, it is imperative that the person carrying out that role has the following attributes:
• Awareness of the business priorities, objectives and business drivers.
• Awareness of the role IT plays in enabling the business objectives to be met.
• Customer service skills.
• Awareness of what IT can deliver to the business, including latest capabilities.
• The competence, knowledge and information necessaryto complete their role.
• The ability to use, understand and interpret the best practice, policies and procedures to ensure adherence.
• Skills such as Management Skills, Communication Skills, Negotiation skills and an analytical mind.
The following are examples of attributes required in many of the roles, dependent on the organization and the specific roles assigned:
Management skills: Both from a person management perspective and from the overall control of process
Ability to handle meetings: Organizing, chairing, and documenting meetings and ensuringthat actions are followed up
Communication skills: An important element of all roles is raising awareness of the processes in place to ensure buy–in and conformance. An ability to communicate at all levels within the organization will be imperative
Articulateness: Both written (e.g. for reports) and verbal
Negotiation skills: Are required for several aspects, such as procurement and contracts
An analytical mind: To analyze metrics producedfrom the activity.
Competence and Skills Framework
Standardizing job titles, functions, roles and responsibilities can simplify service management and human resource management.
Many service providers use a common framework of reference for competence and skills to support activities such as skill audits, planning future skill requirements, organizational development programs and resource allocation.
The Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA)is an example of a common reference model for the identification of the skills needed to develop effective IT services, information systems and technology.
SFIA defines seven generic levels at which tasks can be performed, with the associated professional skills required for each level.
A second dimension defines core competencies that can be combined with the professional skills.
SFIA is used by many IT service providers to identify career development opportunities.
Training in servicemanagement helps service providers to build and maintain their service management capability. Training needs must be matched to the requirements for competence and professional development.
The official ITIL qualification scheme enables organizations to develop the competence of their personnel through approved training courses. The courses help students to gain knowledge of ITIL best practices, develop their competencies and gain a recognized qualification. The scheme has four levels:
• Foundation level
• Intermediate level
• ITIL Expert
• ITIL Master
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