Service Operation Fulfillment Access Management Problem Management in ITIL – ITIL Course
Service Operation Fulfillment Access Management Problem Management in ITIL – ITIL Course
Fulfillment Access Management Problem
Request Fulfillment helps to process requests using predefined and standardized approvals.
Goals and Objectives
The purpose of Request fulfilment is the process is managing the lifecycle of all service requests from the users.
The objectives of the request fulfilment processare to:
• Maintain user and customer satisfaction through efficient and professional handling of all service requests
• Provide a channel for users to request and receive standard services for which a predefined authorization and qualification process exists
• Provide informationto users and customers about the availability of services and the procedurefor obtaining them
• Source and deliver the components of requested standard services (e.g. licences and softwaremedia)
• Assist with generalinformation, complaints or comments.
The process needed to fulfil a request will vary dependingupon exactly what is being requested, but can usually be broken down into a set of activities that have to be performed. For each request, these activities should be documented into a request model and stored in the SKMS. It will be up to each organization to decide and documents which service requests it will handle through the request fufilment process and which will have to go throughother processes.
The Request fulfillment process is monitored by the Service Desk,however many roles may play a part in executing or delivering the actual Request.
The roles of Request Fulfillment are undertaken by:
• Service Desk Staff: Together with Incident Management staff is responsible for initial response and handles the request
• Other Staff: Responsible for ensuring eventual fulfillment of the request
• External Suppliers: Upon requestfrom the organization to fulfill the Service
There are two basic concepts appliedin the Request Fulfillment process:
• Request Models: Predefined steps to consistentlyhandle frequent requests
• Service Request: Request from a user for information, advice, a Standard
Change or for access to an IT service
In ITIL®, Access Management provides the rightsfor users to access services or group of services that have been agreed.
Purpose and Objectives
The goal of Access Management is to:
• Grant authorized users the right to use a servicewhile preventing access to non-authorized users in order to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of information and infrastructure.
• Execute policiesand actions defined in Information Security and Availability
The objectives of the access management process are to:
• Manage access to services based on policies and actions defined in information security management (see ITIL Service Design)
• Efficiently respond to requests for granting access to services, changing access rights or restricting access, ensuringthat the rights being provided or changedare properly granted
• Oversee access to services and ensure rights being provided are not improperlyused
Access management is effectivelythe execution of the policies in information security management, in that it enables the organization to manage the confidentiality, availability and integrity of the organization’s data and intellectual property.
The basic concepts in Access Management must be clearly understood and differentiated.
• Access: Refers to the scope of services or data that the user can use. In other words: whether or not a user is allowed to use a service.
• Identity: Refers to the information aboutthe user that is unique to only that user
• Rights: Refers to the actual settings where the user is granted access to a
Service or group of Services
• Service groups: A set of related services to which access simultaneously
• Directory Services: Refers to a specific type of tool that is used to manage access and rights
Roles of Service Operation functions
Activities and functions carried out in Access Management are:
• Service Desk: TheService Desk will validate therequest, disseminate the request to appropriate levels and teams; and ensure user has been informed of the status of their request.
• Technical and Applications Management: Assist in the mechanisms created during Service Design, test the service and perform Access Management for the systems. Sometimes they provide and revoke access to services.
• IT Operations Management: Providing or revoking access to services.
The Problem Management process aims at identifying the root cause(s) of disruptions, so permanent solutions can be implemented.
The purpose of Problem Management is to minimize the adverse impactof Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent the recurrence of Incidentsrelated to these errors.
Problem Management is the process responsible for:
• Managing the Lifecycle of all Problems.
• Diagnosing the root case of Problems and determine the solution to those problems.
• Ensuring that the resolution is implementedappropriately.
Problem management includes the activities requiredto diagnose the root cause of incidents and to determine the resolution to those problems.
It is also responsible for ensuring that the resolution is implemented through the appropriate controlprocedures, especially change management and release and deployment management.
Key Concepts applied in Problem Management are:
• Problem: The unknowncause of one or more Incidents
• Workaround: A temporary way of overcoming technicaldifficulties, for example, Incidents and Problems
• Known Error: Problem that has a documented root cause and a work-around
• Known Error Database(KEDB): Database containing all Known Error Records
Problems are generally unique and needs to be handled using differentmethods.
A Problem modelis a way of predefining the steps that should be taken to handle
Problems caused by a Known Error or an error.
• Problem detection
There are multiple ways of detecting problems in all organizations. These will include:
Suspicion or detection of an unknown cause of one or more incidents by the Service Desk
Analysis of an incident by a technical support group
Automated detection of an infrastructure or application fault, using event/alert tools
A notification from a supplier or contractor that a problemexists that has to be resolved.
Analysis of incidentsas part of proactiveManagement
• Problem Logging
Regardless of the detection method,all the relevant details of the problem must be recorded so that a full historic record exists.
• Problem Categorization
Problems must be categorized in the same way as incidentsso that the true nature of the problem can be easily traced in the future and meaningful management information can be obtained.
• Problem Prioritization
Problems must be prioritized in the same way and for the same reasons as incidents. Problem Prioritization should also consider the severity of the problems.
• Problem Investigation and Diagnosis
An investigation should be conducted to try to diagnose the root cause of the problem but the appropriate level of resources and expertise should be applied to finding a resolution commensurate with the priority code allocated and the service targetin place for that priority level.
In cases wherea workaround is found, it is important that the problem record remains open and details of the workaround are always documented within the Problem Record.
• Raising a Known Error Record
As soon as the diagnosis is complete, and particularly where a workaround has been found, a Known Error Record must be raised and placed in the Known Error Database so that if further incidents or problems arise, they can be identified and the service restored more quickly.
• Problem Resolution
Ideally, as soon as a solution has been found, it should be applied to resolve the problem. However, there may be some problems for which a Business Case for resolution cannot be justified. In such cases a decision may be taken to leave the Problem Record open but to use a workaround description in the Known Error Record to detect and resolve any recurrences quickly.
• Problem Closure
When any change has been completed and the resolution has been applied, the Problem Record should be formally closed. The status of any related Known Error Record should be updated to show that the resolution has been applied.
• Major Problem Review
After every majorproblem, a review should be conducted to learn any lessons for the future. Specifically, the review should examine:
¾ Those things that were done correctly
¾ Those things that were done wrong
¾ What could be done better in the future
¾ How to prevent recurrence
¾ Whether there has been any third-party responsibility
It is rare for any new applications, systems or software releases to be completely error-free. It is more likely that during testing of such new applications, systems or releases a prioritization system will be used to eradicate the more seriousfaults, but it is possible that minor faults are not rectified.
Where a decision is made to release something into the production environmentthat includes known deficiencies, these should be logged as Known Errors in the KEDB, together with details of workarounds or resolution activities.
• Problem Manager: The Problem Manager is the Single point of coordination and the owner of the process. Responsibilities include:
Coordinating all Problem Management activities
Acting as the liaison with all Problem resolution groupsto ensure the swift resolution of Problems within SLA targets
Ownership and protection of the Known Error Database
Gatekeeper for the inclusion of all Known Errors and management of search algorithms
Formal closure of all Problem Records
Acting as the liaison with suppliers and contractors to ensure that third parties fulfill their contractual obligations for Problem resolution
Arranging, running, documenting and all follow-up activities relating to
Major Problem Reviews
• Problem Solving Group(s) Staff: Performed by one or more technical support groups, suppliers of support contractors. This group ensures allocation of resources is done appropriately.
Relationships with other Processes
One of the primarybenefits of Problem Managementis demonstrated in the“Many to One” relationship between Incidents and Problems. This enables an IT Service Provider to resolve many Incidents in an efficient manner by correcting the underlying root-cause.
However, not all Problems are diagnosed, perhaps because the root-cause of the Problem is not always found. It may also be seen that some Known Errors are not fixed. The reasons for this may includecosts that exceed the benefitsof fixing the error, or that the error may be fixed by an upcoming patchor update from a third party.
ITIL, ITIL Foundation Course, ITIL V3, ITIL Course, ITIL – Course, online itil, itil certification, online material for itil course
About The Author